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With the end of COP 21 and the signing of the historic Paris Agreement , it’s not just countries that are thinking about how to reduce emissions—individuals are reflecting on how their habits and actions impact climate change as well.

Island Press authors shared what they’re doing to reduce their carbon footprints and, in some cases, what more they could be doing. Check out their answers and share your own carbon cutbacks—or vices—in the comments.

Jason Mark, author of Very much like the Paris Climate Accord itself, ecological sustainability is a process, not a destination. Which, I'll admit, is a squirrely way of saying that I'm doing my best to reduce my carbon footprint. I ride my bike. I take mass transit. Most days my car never leaves the spot in front of our home. Most importantly, I have sworn off beef because of cattle production's disproportionate climate impact. The (grass-fed, humane) burger still has a siren song, but I ignore it.

Grady Gammage, author of I drive a hybrid, ride light rail to the airport and don’t bother to turn on the heat in my house (which is possible in Phoenix). My greatest carbon sin is my wood burning fireplace. I don’t use it when there’s a “no burn” day, but otherwise, I have a kind of primordial attraction to building a fire.

John Cleveland, co-author of We just installed a 12 KW solar array on our home in New Hampshire. At the same time, we electrified our heating system with Mitsubishi heat pumps.So our home is now net positive from both an electricity and heating point of view. We made the solar array large enough to also power an electric car, but are waiting for the new models that will have more range before we install the electric car charger. The array and heat pumps have great economics. The payback period is 8-years and after that we get free heat and electricity for the remainder of the system life — probably another 20+ years. Great idea for retirement budgets!

Dan Fagin, author of Besides voting for climate-conscious candidates, the most important thing we can do as individuals is fly less, so I try to take the train where possible. I wish it were a better option.

Darrin Nordahl, author of The United States is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases behind China, and how we produce food in this country is responsible for much of those emissions. From agriculture, to the fossil fuels needed to produce bags and boxes for pre-packaged food, to the burning of gas and oil to transport both fresh produce and pre-packaged food, I have discovered I can reduce my carbon footprint with a simple change in my diet. For one, I avoid processed food of any sort. I also grow a good portion of my vegetables and herbs and, thankfully, local parks with publicly accessible fruit trees provide a modicum of fresh fruit for my family. We also eat less meat than we used to and our bodies (and our planet) are healthier because of it.

Yoram Bauman, author of I try to put on warm slippers or other extra layers around the house in order to not have to heat the house so much, but I still like to take long hot showers. (Maybe those two things are connected).

Rob McDonald, author of I try to pay attention to my daily habits that make up a lot of my carbon footprint. So I bike to work, or take mass transit. That gets rid of the carbon footprint of driving. I also try to only moderately heat or cool my home, so I’m not burning a lot of energy doing that. The biggest component of my carbon footprint that I haven’t managed to cut is for travel. I have to travel once or twice a month for my job, and unless it is a trip in the Northeast (when I can just use Amtrak!), I am stuck travelling. The carbon footprint of all that air travel is huge. I try to do virtual meetings, rather than travel whenever I can, but there still seems to be a big premium people place on meeting folks face to face.

Emily Monosson, author of We keep our heat really low in the winter (ask our teenage daughter, it's way too cold for her here!) and I hang my clothes on the line in the summer. Because it’s so cold, I love taking really hot long showers. I should also hang my clothes in the winter too, and ditch the dryer.

Jonathan Barnett and Larry Beasley, co-authors of We both live in a town-house in the central part of a city – on opposite sides of the continent: one in Philadelphia the other in Vancouver. Our neighborhoods have 100% walk scores. We each own one car, but don’t need to drive it very much - most of the time we can go where they need to on foot. We wrote our book using email and Dropbox.What they still need to work on is using less air travel in the future.

Jan Gehl, author of I live in Denmark where 33% of the energy is delivered by windmills. A gradual increase will happen in the coming years. As in most other countries in the developed world, too much meat is on the daily diet. That is absolutely not favorable for the carbon footprint. It sounds like more salad is called for in the future!

Suzanne Shaw, co-author of Emanuel Ungaro Leather Heels Dr2El
provides a roadmap for consumers to cut their carbon footprint 20 percent (or more).My approach to lowering my carbon footprint has gone hand in hand with saving money through sensible upgrades.Soon after I purchase my 125-year-old house I added insulation, weather stripping and a programmable thermostat. When I needed a new furnace, I swapped a dirty oil furnace to a cleaner, high-efficiency natural gas model. And now have LED bulbs in every fixture in the house, Energy Star appliances throughout, and power strips at my entertainment and computer areas.This summer, I finally installed solar panels through a 25-year lease (zero out-of-pocket expense).In the month of September, I had zero emissions from electricity use. Living in the city, I am fortunate to have access to public transportation and biking, which keeps our household driving to a minimum.

Peter Fox-Penner, author of I’m reducing my footprint by trying to eat vegan, taking Metro rather than taxis or Ubers, and avoiding excess packaging. Right now I travel too much, especially by air. P.S. Later this year I’ll publish my carbon footprint on the website of the new Boston University Institute for Sustainable Energy .Watch for it!

Carlton Reid, author of Our family has a (small) car but I cycle pretty much all of the time. My kids cycle to school (some days) and my wife cycles to work (sometimes). It’s useful to have the car for some journeys, long ones mostly, but having a family fleet of bikes means we don’t need a second car. Reducing one’s carbon footprint can be doing less of something not necessarily giving up something completely. If everybody reduced their car mileage (and increased their active travel mileage) that would be good for the planet and personally: win/win.

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COP 21
Paris Agreement
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Katharine Sucher

Katharine is the Publicity Marketing Associate at Island Press.

Katharine Sucher / February 10, 2016

In addition, adiponectin was reported to attenuate the adverse renal effects of angiotensin II ( Fang et al . 2013 ). Specifically, adiponectin was found to reduce angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase activation), inflammation (NF-kB activity), and fibrosis (fibronectin expression) in human renal tubular cells. Adiponectin was shown to inhibit angiotensin II-induced activation of NADPH oxidase via the ADIPOR1-mediated activation of both AMPK and cAMP–Epac pathways.

The above-mentioned studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of adiponectin regarding the reduction in albuminuria were carried out exclusively in rodent experimental settings. The relevance to the human situation of studies in rodents should be interpreted with caution. Thus, further studies are needed to demonstrate the protective role of adiponectin against albuminuria in human experimental settings. The above-mentioned studies should be considered separately from studies investigating the role of adiponectin in the setting of acute renal injury. The latter group of studies includes two trials investigating whether adiponectin can modulate the adverse effects of renal ischemia–reperfusion injury in mice ( Cheng et al . 2012 , GANT MAJOR Trainers bright white/marine IagpkLK2r
). These studies yielded conflicting results with regard to the acute responses of various parameters of renal structure and function resulting from acute renal injury. Acute responses of this type are minimally predictable, depend to a great extent on the time interval between the initial injury and the studied response and are influenced by postoperative stress. Thus the assessment of the possible impact of adiponectin on these responses may lead to false conclusions regarding the role of adiponectin in renal physiology.

The concept of the protective role of adiponectin against the development of albuminuria is reinforced by data from a genetic study performed by Kacso et al . (2012 a ) . The presence of T allele at 276GT polymorphism of adiponectin gene is associated with increased circulating adiponectin ( Superfeet Womens Juniper Faux Fur Lined Waterproof Bootie jDWOEs
). Kacso et al . (2012 a ) reported that in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and albuminuria, the GG genotype at 276GT was more frequent and the prevalence of the T allele (GT+TT genotypes) was lower compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normoalbuminuria. Therefore, adiponectin may protect against the development of albuminuria in subjects with genetically determined increased levels of serum adiponectin. It is well known that the protective roles of adiponectin and AMPK on endothelial cells involve neutralisation of ROS, reduction in adhesion molecules synthesis and suppression of cell proliferation ( Rakatzi et al . 2004 , Dolce amp; Gabbana Embellished polka dot slippers 24V44Jy
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). Importantly, high levels of ROS, increased expression of adhesion molecules and hypercellularity constitute markers of glomerulonephropathies. These data imply that adiponectin crossing the glomerular filtration barrier may control oxidative stress and cell division in glomerulus through ADIPOR1-mediated activation of AMPK ( Anya Hindmarch Eyes leather sneakers rdBcHWfCNt
). This regulation could explain at least in part the adiponectin-induced reduction in albuminuria through the beneficial effects of adiponectin on glomerular structure and function.

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